Lebih 2000 tahun lalu, bangsa Yunani telah mengkreasi sebuah bentuk seni bertarung yang keras dan brutal yg disebut dengan Pankration (ba...

History of MMA

Lebih 2000 tahun lalu, bangsa Yunani telah mengkreasi sebuah bentuk seni bertarung yang keras dan brutal yg disebut dengan Pankration (baca : pan/cray/shun atau pan-crat-ee-on). Istilah Pankration ini terdiri dari kata dalam bahasa Yunani “pan” dan “kratos” yang memiliki arti sebagai all powers atau all-encompassing. Pertama kali diperkenalkan dalam Olympic Games sekitar tahun 648 BC (sebelum Masehi), olahraga pertempuran ini segera setelah itu menyebar dan semakin di-tunggu2 oleh para penggemarnya kala itu.

Pankration mengkombinasikan semua kekuatan fisik dan mental (physical and mental resource) dari sang atlet – baik kekuatan tangan – kaki, pikiran maupun jiwa. Hanya menggigit dan mencolok mata saja yg dilarang dalam seni bertarung yg satu ini. Teknik yg biasa digunakan biasanya adalah : boxing dan wrestling: hook dan uppercut punches, full-powered kicks, elbowing dan kneeing, joint locks, dan juga beberapa bentuk submission chokeholds.

Tentu semua penggemar MMA sudah tahu itu semua.

Tapi mungkin ada baiknya kita simak sejarah singkat Pankration dari tahun ke tahun berikut ini. Diambil dari sini, ditulis oleh : Ted Psahnoudis Attreides

1. The Mythical Period— 1062 B.C. to 702 B.C.

* Tradition teaches that Theseus and Heracles (i.e. Hercules) are the two founders of Pankration.

* Theseus passed on Pankration to Athens, Arcadia, Miletus, Ephesus and the Islands of Tenedos, Lesbos, Chios and Samos.

* Heracles (i.e. Hercules) passed on Pankration to Sparta, Corinth, Peloponnesus and the Apoikias (Greek colonies) in Italy and Sicily.

* In the Olympic Games of 776 B.C., the names of the victors are for the first time recorded in history.

2.The Classical Period— 702 B.C. to 342 B.C.

* Pankration is now practiced in almost all of the Greek cities and colonies throughout the Mediterranean.

* Pankration is officially entered in the Olympic games of 648 B.C. as a combat sport.

* In 531 B.C. Pankration is influenced by the philosopher Pythagoras. His “Sacred Philosophy” is adopted by a few Pankratiasts.

* In 522 B.C. Ten Master Pankratiasts form a Fraternal Association to promote and preserve Pythagorean philosophy and Pankration. Henceforth Pankration has 2 forms of succession: As an ‘Association’ martial art and as an Olympic combat sport.

* In 406 B.C. Polydamas of Scottusa introduces Pankration in Asia, in the presence of the Persian Royal Court (at Susa)

3.The Hellenistic Period— 342 B.C. to 18 A.D.

* In 335 B.C., the Athenian Pankratiast Dioxippus accepts a challenge and promptly defeats the best military warrior from Macedonia (Coragus). The bout is attended by Alexander the Great –who is impressed by Pankration’s effectiveness.

* In 330 B.C. Alexander the Great introduces combat Pankration into Persia by giving 30,000 Persian Nobles a complete Greek education, and begins integrating the Greek and Persian cultures in the Near East.

* In 327 B.C. Alexander the Great introduces Greek Culture and Pankration into India (Taxilis and King Porus).

* In 180 B.C. Master Pankratiasts from the Association seeing the decline of moral values in Greece, decide to stop teaching Pankration publicly. Henceforth only Olympic Pankration was taught publicly. Pankration as martial art was taught in secrecy.

* In 146 B.C. mainland Greece succumbs to Rome in battle and sport Pankration is entered as a gladiatorial event in Roman arenas.

4.The Classical (or Old) Enlightenment Period — 18 A.D. to 378 A.D.

* Association Pankratiasts are now found in Athens, Sparta, Crete, Alexandria, Antioch, Tarsus, Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Byzantium, Thessalonica and a few Aegean Islands. They continue secretly teaching Pankration as a martial art.

* After 81 A.D. the relative peace and stability of the Roman Empire along with the recent introduction of the teachings of Wisdom (by the sacred philosopher Appolonius of Tyana) and the complementary teachings of the Heart (by Jesus the Christ) lead Association Pankratiasts into a period of enlightenment and spiritual development.

* In 330 A.D. the emperor Constantine builds a new capital Constantinople (in Byzantium) and gradually the Roman Empire is divided into East and West. Most Association Pankratiasts live in the lands of the Eastern (i.e. Byzantine) Empire.

5.The Early Byzantine Period— 378 A.D. to 738 A.D.

* The Western Roman Empire collapses into a dark age. The Olympic Games (and Olympic Pankration) are banned by the Emperor.

* The Eastern Christian Byzantine Empire survives the barbarian raids and flourishes for the next thousand years.

* Association Pankration as martial art continues to be practiced in secrecy. Its spiritual philosophy is codified into an integral approach, spanning a bridge between esoteric Christianity and ancient Greek philosophy.

6. The Middle Byzantine Period— 738 A.D. to 1098 A.D.

* Pankratiasts reveal some of their ancient texts and knowledge to the Byzantine Imperial Army.

* After 800 A.D. the next 4 centuries are remembered as Byzantium’s golden age. Christian Greek culture is dominant.

* In Western Europe, Charlemagne sparks a cultural reawakening, after 794 A.D., by importing tutors in his court in Greek, Latin, Astronomy, Mathematics, Wrestling, Pankration, etc.

7.The Late Byzantine Period— 1098 A.D. to 1458 A.D.

* In 1204 A.D., the Venetians seduce the fourth Crusade to plunder the Byzantine Empire instead of freeing the holy lands.

* As a result, mainland Greece and its islands are distributed amongst the victorious crusaders and many Association Pankratiasts conceal themselves up in several Greek mountains to preserve their knowledge and their art.

* Constantinople (the capital of the Byzantine Empire) is liberated in 1261 A.D. by the Greeks, and remains Christian until 1453 A.D.

* In 1453 A.D. it finally succumbs to the Turks. The remaining Pankratiasts become “Freedom Fighters” in west Anatolia.

8.The Greek “Dark Ages” Period— 1458 A.D. to 1818 A.D.

* Greece is occupied by the Turks, and it falls into a dark age. Much knowledge is lost. Greek science comes to a standstill.

* Small clans of freedom fighters including a number of Association Pankratiasts continue living up in the mountains on both mainland Greece and Western Anatolia. Slowly they build up a fighting force and the resources needed to win their freedom from the Ottoman Turkish Empire.

9.The Greek Renaissance Period— 1818 A.D. to Present (Period Ends in 2178 A.D.)

* The American and French revolutions signal the beginning of a new era and in 1821 Greece begins its sixth attempt at freedom by starting a War of Independence from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Against all odds it achieves independence by 1830.

* After World War I, Greece and Turkey continue fighting until 1922 when the Ottoman Empire becomes a “Republic”.

* In 1923 Greece and Turkey exchange populations in their respective conquered regions and Association Pankratiasts from mainland Greece, Crete, Constantinople and Smyrna exchange techniques and establish lineages again.

* In the 1930’s Pankration is again revitalized by blending the philosophy, principles, and techniques of the five remaining “clans”.

* In the 1950’s three emigrating Greek Pankratiast families bring Association Pankration with them into the United States.